Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, people, helicopters, watercraft, spacecraft and aircraft.
Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities, and policies.
Area development is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas.Rural development has traditionally
centered on the exploitation of land-intensive natural resources such as agriculture and forestry.However, changes in global production networks and increased urbanization have changed the character
of rural areas. Increasingly tourism, niche manufacturers, and recreation have replaced resource extraction and agriculture as dominant economic drivers.The need for rural communities to approach development from a wider perspective has created more focus on a broad range of development goals rather than merely creating incentive for agricultural or resource based businesses.
Sanitation is the means of promoting hygiene through the prevention of human contact with hazards of wastes especially faeces, by proper treatment and disposal of the waste, often mixed into wastewater. These hazards may be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and animal excreta, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage or greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention may involve engineering solutions (e.g., sanitary sewers, sewage treatment, surface runoff management, solid waste management, excreta management), simple technologies (e.g., pit latrines, dry toilets, urine-diverting dry toilets, septic tanks), or even simply by behavior changes in personal hygiene practices, such as hand washing with soap.
A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of things (IoT) technology in a secure fashion to manage a city’s assets. These assets include local departments’ information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, and other community services. A smart city is promoted to use urban informatics and technology to improve the efficiency of services. ICT allows city officials to interact directly with the community and the city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city, how the city is evolving, and how to enable a better quality of life. Through the use of sensors integrated with real-time monitoring systems, data are collected from citizens and devices – then processed and analyzed.
Technology (“science of craft”,)is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the productionof goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines which can be operated without detailed knowledge of their workings.
Energy in India describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in India. Energy policy of India describes the policies and strategies of India for achieving sustainable energy security to its people. Electricity sector in India is the main article of electricity in India. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy provides data regarding progress in the non-conventional energy sector.Since 2013, total primary energy consumption in India has been the third highest in the world after China and the United States.India is the second top coal consumer in the year 2015 after China. India ranks third in oil consumption with 195.5 million tons in 2015 after the United States and China. India is net energy importer to meet nearly 45% of its total primary energy.
An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location in various countries. Understood in its broadest sense, ‘The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources’.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.Tourism may be international, or within the traveller’s country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go “beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only”, as people “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”.
Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines which can be operated without detailed knowledge of their workings.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is covered separately. A clean water supply – in particular water that is not polluted with fecal matter from lack of sanitation – is the single most important determinant of public health.
Waste management or Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.This includes amongst other things collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.